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Replication, effect sizes and identifying the biological impacts of pesticides on bees under field conditions

This article evaluates the European Food Safety Authority’s current risk assessment processes. The authors suggest that to more accurately assess risk (thus minimizing risks to the environment) pesticide risk assessment may need to include field trials of greater than 1 year of exposure to species and populations. Authors argued that such field trials provide key validation under real-world conditions.

Authors: 
Woodcock, B.A., M.S. Heard, M.S. Jitlal, M. Rundlof, James M. Bullock, R.F. Shore and R.F. Pywell
Journal: 
Journal of Applied Ecology
Year published: 
2016
DOI: 
10.1111/1365-2664.12676